Conjunction, Classes of Conjunctions, Examples & Exercises


Conjunction (A Joiner Word)
A conjunction is a word used to join words, phrases or sentences. They link sentence components such as words, phrases, or clauses. Let us take this sentence; I am late because I could not get a taxi. In this sentence, there are two parts (clauses) ” I am late ” and ” I could not get a taxi “, the word “because” joins the parts together.
Sometimes a Conjunction is used right in the beginning of a sentence.
Though he was angry, he listened to me patiently.
List:
And, or, but, so, because, if, that, though, although, before, unless, as, where, when, while, since, except, than, till, until, Either……or, Neither……nor, etc. 
The chief conjunctions are:
And, or, but, so, because, etc.
which are used in the following ways:
And:
We use “and” to link words or word groups of the same class.
They ate and drank.
Or: 
We use “or” as a link between alternatives and possibilities.
He will be here on Monday or Tuesday.
But:
“But” is used to show opposite or conflicting ideas as in the sentence.
She is small but strong.
So: 
“So” is used to show result as in the sentence.
I was tired So I went to sleep.
Because: 
“Because” is used to give a reason.
I am late because I could not get a taxi.

Classes of Conjunctions

There are three classes of conjunctions.
1. Coordinating Conjunctions
2. Subordinate Conjunctions
3. Correlative Conjunctions

1. Coordinating Conjunctions

Co-coordinating conjunctions are conjunctions which connect clauses of equal rank, or two equal parts of a sentence.
Coordinating conjunctions are divided into the following kinds:
i. Cumulative or Copulatives Conjunctions
ii. Adversative Conjunctions
iii. Disjunctive or Alternative Conjunctions
iv. Illative Conjunctions
i. Cumulative or Copulatives Conjunctions: 
We use Cumulative Conjunctions to add words or group of words, or one statement to another statement of same class.
List: 
And, also, too, as well as, no less than, not only….but also, both….and, etc. 
Both he and his brother are players. 
Not only he but also his father went there.
iii. Adversative Conjunctions: 
Adversative Conjunctions show opposition or contrast between two statements. We use Cumulative Conjunctions to add words or group of words, or one statement to another statement of same class.
List: 
But, only, yet, while, however, whereas, still, nevertheless, etc. 
He is poor, buthe is honest.
He is ill, still he did his duty.
He is honest while his brother is dishonest.
iii. Disjunctive or Alternative Conjunctions: 
We use Disjunctive or Alternative Conjunctions to show possibilities or a choice between two alternatives.
We use Cumulative Conjunctions to add words or group of words, or one statement to another statement of same class.
List: 
or, either, neither, else, otherwise, either…..or, neither…..nor, etc. 
Work hard, otherwise you will fail.
Either you or your brother has stolen my pen.
iv. Illative Conjunctions: 
We use Illative Conjunctions to show result or logical judgment.
List: 
So, therefore, hence, thus, because, as, for, etc. 
He was ill, so he did not go to college.
Note:
Any of the Co-ordinations, with the exception of or, nor, may be replaced by a comma, semi-Colin, or Colin; as.
It was morning and a cool breeze was blowing.
It was morning; a cool breeze was blowing.

2. Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating Conjunction joins together a dependent clause to a principal clause on which it depends for its full meaning. They join tow parts of a sentence that are not equal.
List: 
after, because, if, that, though, although, before, unless, as, where, when, while, since, except, than, etc.
I will read that book if you advise me.
He ran fast because he was getting late.
Go on trying as long as you are alive.
I do not know how you did it.
Classification of Subordinating Conjunctions: 
Subordinating Conjunctions may be classified according to their meaning.
i. Time: 
Go on trying as long as you are alive.
I had taken tea before he came.
ii. Cause or Reason:
He ran fast because he was getting late.
iii. Purpose: 
We eat so that we may live.
iv. Result or Consequence: 
He was so tired that he went to sleep.
v. Condition: 
I shall not help you unless you speak the truth.
vi. Comparison: 
Ali is brave than Aslam.

3. Correlative Conjunctions

Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs as:
List: 
Either……or, Neither……nor, Both……and, Whether……or, Not only……..but also, No sooner……than, As soon………as, etc 
Either take it or leave it.
It is neither useful nor ornamental.
We both love and honor him.
Though he is suffering much pain, yet he does not complain.
I do not care whether you go or stay.
Not only is he foolish, but also obstinate.