The Participle, Present Participle, Past Participle, Perfect Participle, Uses of the Participles

A participle is that form of verb which is partly a verb and partly an adjective. A participle is a double part of speech. It is verb as well as adjective. It is, therefore, called Verbal-Adjective.


There are three forms of Participles.
1. Present Participle. (first form of the verb + “ing”)
2. Past Participle. (third form of verb)
3. Perfect Participle. (having/having been + past participle)


It is formed by adding “ing” to the first form or present tense of a verb, as: Sleeping, laughing, going, working, etc. Hence it is also called “ing” form of verb.

Use of the Present Participle:

(I) As a verb: 
A present participle is a verb when with some suitable, it is used to form continuous tense, as:
I am playing. 
He was running. 
He will be playing football.
(II) As an Adjective: 
A present participle is an adjective when it qualifies some noun or pronoun, as:
laughing boy.
working farmer.
An interesting story.
(III) It is also used: 
(i) Predicatively to add to our knowledge of the object. 
The match was very interesting. 
He kept me waiting. 
The teacher kept him standing. 
(ii) Like an adverb, to modify a verb. 
He went out smiling. 
He came here running. 
(iii) As an object complement to qualify the object and to our knowledge of it. 
I found him running.
He kept me waiting.
(iv) To form an adjective phrase. 
The boy wearing the blue shirt is my cousin.
The man playing in ground is brave.
(v) To join two sentences.
She took her books. She went home.
Taking her books, she went home.
I put on my cap. I went out.
Putting on my cap, I went out.


Past Participle is the third form of a verb.

Use of the Past Participle:

(i) To form the Perfect Tense form, with the suitable helping verb has, have or had. 
have finished my work.
The patient had died, when the docror arrived.
(ii) To form the passive voice with the suitable form of verb‘be’(is, are, am, was, were). 
am tired.
The teacher was pleased.
The road has been repaired.
(iii) Attributively, Predicatively, and as object-complement, like the present participle. 
The injured child was weeping. (attributive)
The man seemed worried. (predicative)
I found the door locked. (object complement)
(iv) Like an adverb to modify a verb. 
They went out displeased.
(v) To form an adjective phrase. 
Goods once sold, are not taken back.
(vi) To join two sentences. 
He completed his studies. He returned home.
Having completed his studies, he returned home.


It is a verbal adjective form of verb converted into third form of verb. Having is used before it. It is formed by using “having/having been” before the third form of a verb, as:
Having drunk too much, he vomited.
Having been found guilty, he was sentenced by the judge.
Having worked hard he went to sleep.
Having been warned by me, he became serious.
Difference between Participle and Gerund
Although both Present Participle and Gerund are verbs having “ing” at the end, (both are called ing form of verb), yet they are quite different from each other.
A Gerund is a Verb+Noun. 
A Present Participle is a Verb+Adjective. 
Running is a good exercise. (Gerund)
I saw him running in the ground. (Participle)