Prepositions, Prepositional phrase, Kinds of Prepositions

A preposition is a word that makes the position of different things clear in a sentence, particularly Nouns. The word “preposition” means, that which is placed before. Therefore, prepositions are words which are put before a noun or pronoun to show its relation with some other noun or pronoun, most often in terms of location, direction, or time. The noun or pronoun which comes after the preposition is called its object.
The book is on the table.
Here “on” is a preposition and it shows us the relation between “book” and “table”.
List:
In, on, over, up, into, after, till, during, through, upon, by, with, across, along, at, behind, before, below, above, under, beside, etc.
Example and exercises:
The girl with golden hair played well.
He left the letter lying on the table.
The fan is above the table.
He jumped into the river.
He climbed up the tree.
He died of cholera.
He sent the gift by post.
He fought with courage.
Note:
A word is preposition when it governs a noun or pronoun; it is an adverb when it does not govern a noun or pronoun.
She could not come before.
She came the day before yesterday.
Prepositional phrase
The preposition and the object of the preposition together are called a prepositional phrase.
He is at home in English.
Ali played instead of working.
Who is at the bottom of this conspiracy?

Kinds of Prepositions (structure)

1) Simple Prepositions:
Most of the common English Prepositions are called simple prepositions. These are consisted of one word.
List:
At, by, with, on, in, to, for, of, from, though, till, over, under, after, etc.
I will be at home.
Come and sit by me.
She lives with her parents.
The cat was sitting on the floor under the table.
I went for a walk after dinner.
It is too expensive till now.
2) Double Prepositions:
These Prepositions consist of two prepositions written as one word and are used when a single Preposition is not sufficient to express the idea.
List:
into (in +out), onto (on +to), within (with +out), without (with + out), within (with + in), etc.
He jumped into the water.
Move the books onto the table.
The noise seems to be coming from within the building.
Without light he couldn’t see anything.
3) Compound Prepositions:
Compound Preposition are generally made by prefixing a preposition (usually a=on or be=by) to a noun, an adjective or an adverb.
List:
Across (on + cross); beneath (by + neath); beyond (by + yond); amidst (on + middle); behind (by + hind); above (on + by + up); before (by + fore); between (by + twain); beyond (by + younder); but (by + out); etc.
Climate change will be a problem across the world.
The fan above the table is not working.
Ali reached home before 2 o’clock.
They argued between themselves.
4) Phrase Prepositions:
When a preposition consisting of a phrase ending with a simple preposition is called phrase preposition.
List:
By means of, by virtue of, in accordance with, in front of, on account of, in opposition to, with reference to, in spite of, etc.
The bank is in front of my house.
He passed on account of hard work.
We are in accordance with your proposal.
He says everything with reference to your letter.
In some matters, we will be in opposition to you.
5) Participle Prepositions:
Present or past participles used as prepositions are called participle preposition.
List:
Pending, concerning, regarding, respecting, considering, given, granted, etc.
Considering the quality, price is low.
Respecting the story you mention, I shall help you.
I have a query regarding your previous reply.
Our business is still pending.
We can find out how much money is spent on food in any given time. Granted, it’s not the most pleasant of jobs but it has to be done.
6) Disguised Prepositions:
A preposition used concisely. Sometimes “by” is changed into “b” and “on” into “a” for making a preposition.
In the word “before” “b” stands for “by” and in “across” “a” stands for “on”.
It is seven O’clock. (o=of)
A couple O’ times. (o=of)
He comes to see us once a week. (a=on)
7) Detached Prepositions:
Sometimes a preposition follows a verb so closely that it is completely detached from the noun it originally governed, is called Detached Preposition. These are often used in interrogative sentences.
What are you talking about?
What are you looking for?
Where he is going to?
Children are running about.

Kinds of Prepositions (Function)

Kinds of prepositions according to their functions are:
1) Prepositions of Place:
These are prepositions which express relationship in place or space.
List:
In, on, over, up, into, upon, across, at, behind, before, etc.
He left the letter lying on the table.
She ran across the road.
She sat beside me.
She stood behind the curtain.
He admitted his crimes before the judge.
2) Prepositions of Time:
These are prepositions which express relationship in time.
List:
At, on, in, before, after, till, during, for, since, before, etc.
He reached before time.
He worked hard for many years.
I have not eaten since morning.
I saw her once during my stay in Lahore.
3) Prepositions of Position:
List:
Below, above, under, over, beside, behind, etc.
The cat is sitting under the table.
It is the shop beside the station.
The cat was sitting on the floor below the table.
They held a large umbrella over her.
I am behind you on this.
4) Prepositions of Motion:
List:
Into, through, from
He jumped into the river.
He goes through the jungle.
She began to walk away from him.
5) Prepositions of Direction:
List:
Up, down, along, across, over
He climbed up the tree.
They walked along the road.
They swim across the river.
6) Cause, reason, purpose
List:
of, for, from, with, etc.
He died of cholera.
He did it for our good.
She is suffering from fever.
7) Agency, instrumentality
List:
by, with, through, etc.
He sent the gift by post.
Ali plays with football.
She heard this through a friend.
8) Manner
List:
with, by, etc.
She was dying by inches.
He fought with courage.
They won the match with ease.
9) Possession
List:
with, of, on, etc.
The girl with golden hair played well.
He is a man of means.
I don’t have money on me.
Note:
There are also prepositions of measure, contrast, concession, etc.
Note:
It can be seen that the same preposition, according to the way in which it is used, would have its place under various heads.